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Starting with the then-new iMac G5, released in October , Apple began including built-in iSight cameras on appropriate models, and a media center interface called Front Row that can be operated by an Apple Remote or keyboard for accessing media stored on the computer.
Front Row has been discontinued as of [update] , however, and the Apple Remote is no longer bundled with new Macs. Apple was initially reluctant to embrace mice with multiple buttons and scroll wheels.
Macs did not natively support pointing devices that featured multiple buttons, even from third parties, until Mac OS X arrived in It looks like a traditional one-button mouse, but it actually has four buttons and a scroll ball, capable of independent x – and y – axis movement.
Since , Apple has also offered the Magic Trackpad as a means to control Macintosh desktop computers in a way similar to laptops. The original Macintosh was the first successful personal computer to use a graphical user interface devoid of a command line. It uses a desktop metaphor , depicting real-world objects like documents and a trash can as icons on-screen. Now known as the classic Mac OS , the System software was introduced in with the first Macintosh, renamed Mac OS in , and continued to evolve until version 9.
Originally, the hardware architecture was so closely tied to the classic Mac OS system that it was impossible to boot an alternative operating system. The most common workaround, is to boot into Mac OS and then to hand over control to a Mac OS-based bootloader application. There are many popular Macintosh software applications ; many of those from large developers, such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop are actively developed for both macOS and Windows.
A large amount of open-source software applications, such as the Firefox web browser and the LibreOffice office suite , are cross-platform , and thereby also run natively on macOS. These programs allow users to run Microsoft Windows or previously Windows-only software on Macs at near-native speed. Although not condoned by Apple, it is possible to run the Linux operating system using Boot Camp or other virtualization workarounds.
In particular, Intel-based Macs lack the A20 gate. Since the introduction of the Macintosh, Apple has struggled to gain a significant share of the personal computer market. At first, the Macintosh K suffered from a dearth of available software compared to IBM’s PC , resulting in disappointing sales in and It took 74 days for 50, units to sell. Notwithstanding these technical and commercial successes on the Macintosh platform, their systems remained fairly expensive, making them less competitive in light of the falling costs of components that made IBM PC compatibles cheaper and accelerated their adoption.
Microsoft Windows 3. In , upon return to Apple as interim CEO, Steve Jobs terminated the Macintosh clone program while simplifying the computer product lines. If measuring market share by installed base, there were more than 20 million Mac users by , compared to an installed base of around million Windows PCs. In , the release of the iMac G3 all-in-one was a great success, selling , units in days, providing a much needed boost to the ailing Macintosh platform. Starting in , Apple moved to eliminate CRT displays from its product line as part of aesthetic design and space-saving measures with the iMac G4.
However, the new iMac with its flexible LCD flat-panel monitor was considerably more expensive on its debut than the preceding iMac G3, largely due to the higher cost of the LCD technology at the time.
To keep the Macintosh affordable for the education market and due to the obsolescence of the iMac G3, Apple created the eMac in April as the intended successor.
However, the eMac’s CRT made it relatively bulky and somewhat outdated, while its all-in-one construction meant it could not be expanded to meet consumer demand for larger monitors. The iMac G4’s relatively high prices were approaching that of laptops which were portable and had higher resolution LCD screens. Meanwhile, Windows PC manufacturers could offer desktop configurations with LCD flat-panel monitors at prices comparable to the eMac and at a much lower cost than the iMac G4.
For the next half-decade while Macintosh sales held steady, it would instead be the iPod portable music player and iTunes music download service that would drive Apple’s sales growth. Statistics from late indicate that Apple had 2. In recent years, market share of the personal computer market is measured by browser hits, sales and installed base. If using the browser metric, Mac market share increased substantially in From to , Mac sales increased continuously on an annual basis.
Apple reported worldwide sales of 3. Industry pundits have often called attention to the Mac’s relatively small market share to predict Apple’s impending doom, particularly in the early and mids when the company’s future seemed bleakest. Others argue that market share is the wrong way to judge the Mac’s success. Apple has positioned the Mac as a higher-end personal computer, and so it may be misleading to compare it to a budget PC. Apple’s small market share, then, gives the impression that fewer people are using Macs than did ten years ago, when exactly the opposite is true.
The sales breakdown of the Macintosh have seen sales of desktop Macs stayed mostly constant while being surpassed by that of Mac notebooks whose sales rate has grown considerably; seven out of ten Macs sold were notebooks in , a ratio projected to rise to three out of four by In recent years, Apple has seen a significant boost in sales of Macs. Although the PC market declined, Apple still managed to ship 2. In contrast, Windows PC manufacturers generally have a wide range of offerings, selling only a portion through retail with a full selection on the web, and often with limited-time or region-specific models.
The Macintosh ranked third on the “list of intended brands for desktop purchases” for the holiday season, then moved up to second in by displacing Hewlett Packard, and in took the top spot ahead of Dell. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. This article is about the computer brand. For the fruit, see McIntosh apple.
For other uses, see Macintosh disambiguation. Not to be confused with Mackintosh. This article’s lead section may be too long for the length of the article.
Please help by moving some material from it into the body of the article. Please read the layout guide and lead section guidelines to ensure the section will still be inclusive of all essential details.
Please discuss this issue on the article’s talk page. February See also: History of Apple Inc. Main article: Macintosh operating systems. The examples and perspective in this paragraph deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this paragraph , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new paragraph, as appropriate.
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One of the two remaining Macintosh clone makers, Umax Data Systems, has announced that it has secured a new licensing agreement with Apple Computer that allows it to offer MacOS 8. To get this license, Umax had to agree to pursue markets Apple will forgo, so Umax’s upcoming MacOS 8 systems will target the low-end.
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Particularly at issue is the ability for Apple to remotely disable or delete apps at will. Some in the tech community have expressed concern that the locked-down iOS represents a growing trend in Apple’s approach to computing, particularly Apple’s shift away from machines that hobbyists can “tinker with” and note the potential for such restrictions to stifle software innovation. Some iPad 2 users reported performance issues when running iOS 8. During the first weekend of sale, more than one million units were sold.
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The Macintosh mainly Mac since  is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. The original Macintosh is the first successful mass-market all-in-one desktop personal computer to have featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen, and mouse. Early Macintosh models were relatively expensive,  hindering competitiveness in a market dominated by the much cheaper Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses,  although they were less expensive than the Xerox Alto and other computers with graphical user interfaces that predated the Mac, except Atari ST.
Macintosh systems were successful in education and desktop publishing, making Apple the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. However, the introduction of Windows 3. Even after the transition to the superior PowerPC -based Power Macintosh line in the mids, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa , and the release of Windows 95 contributed to continued decline of the Macintosh user base. Upon his return to the company, Steve Jobs led Apple to consolidate the complex line of nearly twenty Macintosh models in mid including models made for specific regions down to four in mid the Power Macintosh G3 , iMac G3 , All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices, and aesthetic designs, and helped return Apple to profitability.
Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of “Mac”, a nickname that had been in common use since the development of the first model. After their transition to Intel processors in , the complete lineup was Intel-based. Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however, System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple’s Macintosh clone program from to The current version is macOS Monterey , first released on June 7, Volunteer communities have customized Intel-based macOS to run illicitly on non-Apple computers.
The Macintosh family of computers has used a variety of different CPU architectures since its introduction. Originally they used the Motorola series of microprocessors. In the mids they transitioned to PowerPC processors, and again in the mids they began to use and bit Intel x86 processors. The Macintosh project began in the year when Jef Raskin , an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer.
The request was denied, forcing Apple to eventually buy the rights to use this name. The basic layout of the Lisa was largely complete by , at which point Jobs’s continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project.
The design at that time was for a low-cost, easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. Instead of a GUI, it intended to use a text-based user interface that allowed several programs to be running and easily switched between, and special command keys on the keyboard that accessed standardized commands in the programs.
Raskin was authorized to start hiring for the project in September ,  and he immediately asked his long-time colleague, Brian Howard, to join him. In that same interview, Wozniak said that the original Macintosh “failed” under Jobs and that it was not until Jobs left that it became a success. He attributed the eventual success of the Macintosh to people like John Sculley “who worked to build a Macintosh market when the Apple II went away”.
Bud Tribble, a member of the Mac team, was interested in running the Apple Lisa ‘s graphical programs on the Macintosh and asked Smith whether he could incorporate Lisa’s microprocessor into the Mac while still keeping the production cost down.
Smith’s design used fewer RAM chips than the Lisa, which made the production of the board significantly more cost-efficient. Although there were no memory slots, its RAM was expandable to kB by means of soldering sixteen IC sockets to accept kb RAM chips in place of the factory-installed chips.
The final product’s screen was a 9-inch 23 cm , x pixel monochrome display, exceeding the size of the planned screen. Burrell’s innovative design, combining the low production cost of an Apple II with the computing power of Lisa’s Motorola CPU, began to receive Jobs’s attentions.
Stating that they and another computer “are all scheduled to be ready for release within a year”, it described McIntosh as a portable computer with the and KB memory, and possibly battery-powered. Raskin left the team in over a personality conflict with Jobs. After development had completed, team member Andy Hertzfeld said that the final Macintosh design is closer to Jobs’s ideas than Raskin’s.
Jobs commissioned industrial designer Hartmut Esslinger to work on the Macintosh line, resulting in the “Snow White” design language ; although it came too late for the earliest Macs, it was implemented in most other mid- to lates Apple computers. In Regis McKenna was brought in to shape the marketing and launch of the Macintosh. Two days after “” aired, the Macintosh went on sale, and came bundled with two applications designed to show off its interface: MacWrite and MacPaint.
It was first demonstrated by Steve Jobs in the first of his famous Mac keynote speeches, and though the Mac garnered an immediate, enthusiastic following, some labeled it a mere “toy.
This was a time-consuming task that many software developers chose not to undertake, and could be regarded as a reason for an initial lack of software for the new system. Infamous for insulting its own potential customers, the ad was not successful.
While , people participated, dealers disliked the promotion, the supply of computers was insufficient for demand, and many were returned in such a bad condition that they could no longer be sold.
Only about ten applications including MacWrite and MacPaint were widely available,  although many non-Apple software developers participated in the introduction and Apple promised that 79 companies including Lotus, Digital Research , and Ashton-Tate were creating products for the new computer. After one year for each computer, the Macintosh had less than one-quarter of the PC’s software selection—including one word processor, two databases, and one spreadsheet—although Apple had sold , Macintoshes compared to IBM’s first-year sales of fewer than , PCs.
Although Macintosh excited software developers— Doug Carlston said that Broderbund programmers fought over their Macintosh while PCjr was “in some closet”  —they were required to learn how to write software that used the graphic user interface,  and early in the computer’s history needed a Lisa 2 or Unix system to write Macintosh software.
Until third-party Pascal compilers appeared, developers had to write software in other languages while still learning enough Pascal to understand Inside Macintosh. Its beige case consisted of a 9 in 23 cm CRT monitor and came with a keyboard and mouse. A handle built into the top of the case made it easier for the computer to be lifted and carried. This was synonymous with the release of the iconic TV Advertisement by Apple. This model and the k released in September of the same year had signatures of the core team embossed inside the hard plastic cover and soon became collector pieces.
In the combination of the Mac, Apple’s LaserWriter printer, and Mac-specific software like Boston Software’s MacPublisher and Aldus PageMaker enabled users to design, preview, and print page layouts complete with text and graphics—an activity to become known as desktop publishing.
Initially, desktop publishing was unique to the Macintosh, but eventually became available for other platforms. The Macintosh’s minimal memory became apparent, even compared with other personal computers in , and could not be expanded easily.
It also lacked a hard disk drive or the means to easily attach one. Many small companies sprang up to address the memory issue. Suggestions revolved around either upgrading the memory to KB or removing the computer’s 16 memory chips and replacing them with larger-capacity chips, a tedious and difficult operation. It also featured a SCSI parallel interface, allowing up to seven peripherals—such as hard drives and scanners—to be attached to the machine. Its floppy drive was increased to an kB capacity.
The Mac Plus was an immediate success and remained in production, unchanged, until October 15, ; on sale for just over four years and ten months, it was the longest-lived Macintosh in Apple’s history  until the 2nd generation Mac Pro that was introduced on December 19, , surpassed this record on September 18, In September Apple introduced the Macintosh Programmer’s Workshop, or MPW , an application that allowed software developers to create software for Macintosh on Macintosh, rather than cross compiling from a Lisa.
In August , Apple unveiled HyperCard and MultiFinder , which added cooperative multitasking to the operating system. Apple began bundling both with every Macintosh. Among the many innovations in Color QuickDraw were the ability to handle any display size, any color depth, and multiple monitors. The Macintosh II marked the start of a new direction for the Macintosh, as now for the first time it had an open architecture with several NuBus expansion slots, support for color graphics and external monitors, and a modular design similar to that of the IBM PC.
It had an internal hard drive and a power supply with a fan, which was initially fairly loud. For this reason, Apple recommended users bring their SE to an authorized Apple dealer to have upgrades performed. In Apple spun off its software business as Claris.
To provide a complete office suite, Claris purchased the rights to the Informix Wingz spreadsheet program on the Mac, renaming it Claris Resolve , and added the new presentation software Claris Impact. By the early s, Claris applications were shipping with the majority of consumer-level Macintoshes and were extremely popular.
In Claris released ClarisWorks , which soon became their second best-selling application. In Apple sued Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard on the grounds that they infringed Apple’s copyrighted GUI, citing among other things the use of rectangular, overlapping, and resizable windows.
After four years, the case was decided against Apple, as were later appeals. With the new Motorola processor came the Macintosh IIx in , which had benefited from internal improvements, including an on-board MMU. System 7 was the first Macintosh operating system to support bit addressing. The third version of Microsoft Windows, Windows 3. While the Macintosh was still mainly regarded as superior to Windows at the time, by this point, Windows “was good enough for the average user”.
Finally, there was a component shortage that rocked the exponentially-expanding PC industry in , forcing Apple USA head Allan Loren to cut prices, which dropped Apple’s margins. In response, Apple introduced a range of relatively inexpensive Macs in October The Macintosh Classic , essentially a less expensive version of the Macintosh SE, was the least expensive Mac offered until early Apple improved Macintosh computers by introducing models equipped with newly available processors from the 68k lineup.
Apple released its first portable computer, the Macintosh Portable in Although due to considerable design issues, it was soon replaced in with the first of the PowerBook line: the PowerBook , a miniaturized portable; the 16 MHz PowerBook ; and the 25 MHz PowerBook As for Mac OS, System 7 introduced a form of virtual memory , improved the performance of color graphics, and gained standard co-operative multitasking.
Also during this time, the Macintosh began to shed the “Snow White” design language , along with the expensive consulting fees they were paying to Frog design. Apple instead brought the design work in-house by establishing the Apple Industrial Design Group , which took on responsibility for crafting a new look for all Apple products. Intel had tried unsuccessfully to push Apple to migrate the Macintosh platform to Intel chips.
Apple concluded that Intel’s complex instruction set computer CISC architecture ultimately would be unable to compete against reduced instruction set computer RISC processors.
In late , as the higher-end Macintosh desktop lineup transitioned to the ‘, Apple was unable to offer the ‘ in their top-of-the-line PowerBooks until early with the PowerBook series , several years after the first powered IBM compatible laptops hit the market which cost Apple considerable sales. In Intel rolled out the Pentium processors as the successor to the , but the Motorola was never released, leaving the Macintosh platform one CPU generation behind.
Notwithstanding these technical and commercial successes on the Macintosh, the falling costs of components made IBM PC compatibles cheaper and accelerated their adoption, over Macintosh systems that remained fairly expensive.
A successful price war initiated by Compaq vaulted them from third place to first among PC manufacturers in , overtaking a struggling IBM and relegating Apple to third place. Furthermore, Apple had created too many similar models that confused potential buyers.
At one point, its product lineup was subdivided into Classic, LC, II, Quadra, Performa , and Centris models, with essentially the same computer being sold under a number of different names.
This succeeded in increasing the Macintosh’s market share somewhat and provided cheaper hardware for consumers, but hurt Apple financially as existing Apple customers began to buy cheaper clones which cannibalized the sales of Apple’s higher-margin Macintosh systems, while Apple continued to bear the burden of developing Mac OS. Apple’s market share further struggled due to the release of the Windows 95 operating system, which unified Microsoft’s formerly separate MS-DOS and Windows products.
Windows 95 significantly enhanced the multimedia ability and performance of IBM PC compatible computers and brought the abilities of Windows substantially nearer to parity with Mac OS. This maneuver effectively ended the clone lines, as Apple had only licensed System 7 to clone manufacturers, not Mac OS 8. In September Apple extended Umax’s license allowing them to sell clones with Mac OS 8, the only clone maker to do so, but with the restriction that they only sell low-end systems.
In Apple introduced its new iMac which, like the original K Mac, was an all-in-one computer. Its translucent plastic case, originally Bondi blue and later various additional colors, is considered an industrial design landmark of the late s.
The iMac proved to be phenomenally successful, with , units sold in days.
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-CUSTOMER VALUE-. Etymology. The Macintosh project began in the year when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average replace.me wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh (/ ˈ m æ k ɪ n ˌ t ɒ ʃ / MAK-in-tosh), but the spelling was changed to “Macintosh” for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling . The iPad 2 is a tablet designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc. Compared to the first iPad, as the second model in the iPad line, it gained a faster dual core A5 processor, a lighter build structure, and was the first iPad to feature VGA front-facing and p rear-facing cameras designed for FaceTime video calling.. The device was available initially with three storage .